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Otolaryngology is the oldest medical specialty in the U.S. It focuses on medical and surgical treatment for people who have disorders of the:
Ear, which may include:
Some cranial nerve disorders, such as facial paralysis
Nose, which may include:
Problems with smelling
Appearance of the nose
Throat, which may include:
Diseases of the larynx (voice box)
Upper digestive tract disorders
Disorders involving the esophagus
Related structures of the head and neck, which may include:
Nerves that control sight, smell, hearing, and the face
Benign and malignant tumors
Trauma to the face
Deformities of the face
Cosmetic and reconstructive plastic surgery
Doctors who specialize in otolaryngology are called otolaryngologists. Sometimes they are referred to as ENT (ear, nose, and throat) specialists.
Otolaryngologists may also choose to specialize in any of the following:
Pediatric otolaryngology (children's disorders)
Otology/neurotology (disorders of hearing, balance, facial nerve, and skull base)
Facial cosmetic and reconstructive plastic surgery
Head and neck diseases
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