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This scan is a type of ultrasound used to assess the blood flow of the carotid arteries and diagnose carotid artery disease. These arteries are the main blood vessels carrying oxygen to the brain.
These procedures are used to treat carotid artery disease. One removes plaque that has built up in an artery. The other inflates a tiny balloon in an artery to compress the plaque.
A cerebral arteriogram is an X-ray image of the blood vessels of the brain. It can help diagnose a number of conditions, including aneurysms and thrombosis – a blood clot within a blood vessel.
CT scans of the brain can provide more detailed information about brain tissue and brain structures than standard X-rays.
In computed tomography, the X-ray beam moves in a circle around the body. This allows many different views of the spine. The X-ray information is sent to a computer that interprets the data and displays it in a two-dimensional form on a monitor.
A craniotomy is the surgical removal of part of the bone from the skull to expose the brain. This procedure is done so that brain surgery or diagnostic tests can be performed.
An electroencephalogram detects abnormalities in the brain waves or electrical activity of the brain. During the procedure, electrodes pasted on the scalp detect tiny electrical charges that result from the activity of the brain cells.
Electromyography measures muscle response or electrical activity in response to a nerve’s stimulation of the muscle. The test is used to help detect neuromuscular abnormalities.
Electronystagmography is used to evaluate people with vertigo, or a false sense of spinning or motion that can cause dizziness, and certain other disorders that affect hearing and vision.
Endovascular coiling is a procedure performed to block blood flow into a brain aneurysm, a weakened area in the wall of an artery.
Evoked potentials studies involve three major tests that measure response to visual, auditory, and electrical stimuli. The studies may be used to assess hearing or sight, especially in infants and children, to diagnose disorders of the optic nerve, and to detect tumors or other problems affecting the brain and spinal cord.
Gamma Knife radiosurgery doesn’t involve actual surgery, nor is the Gamma Knife an actual knife. This procedure uses beams of highly focused gamma rays to treat small- to medium-sized lesions, usually in the brain.
Laminectomy is a type of surgery in which a physician removes part or all of a vertebra to ease compression of the spinal cord or the nerve roots that may be caused by injury, herniated disk, spinal stenosis, or tumors.
A lumbar puncture is also known as a spinal tap. The most common reason for a lumbar puncture is to remove a small amount of cerebrospinal fluid to help diagnose various disorders, such as meningitis or encephalitis.
MRI may be used to look at the brain, the spinal cord, or both. MRI can find injuries, structural abnormalities, or certain other conditions, including tumors or aneurysms.
A myelogram is used to evaluate abnormalities of the spinal canal, including the spinal cord, nerve roots, and other tissues.
This test measures how quickly electrical impulses are sent through a nerve. NCV can determine nerve damage and destruction.
PET is a type of nuclear medicine procedure. A tiny amount of a radioactive substance is used to help examine a particular tissue.
Your doctor may order an X-ray of the skull to diagnose a fracture of a skull bone, a pituitary tumor, or certain metabolic and endocrine disorders that cause bone defects of the skull.
An X-ray of the spine, neck, or back can help diagnose a range of problems, from back or neck pain to abnormalities in the alignment of the spine, such as kyphosis or scoliosis.
Ankylosing spondylitis is a form of arthritis that primarily affects the ligaments and joints of the spine, especially the lower back. As the disease progresses, it can lead to a stooped posture. In this video, you'll find out how this condition develops and the treatments available.
To protect your back when lifting an object, keep your spine in proper alignment. One way to remember this is to keep your ears over your shoulders and your shoulders over your hips. This video discusses other ways you can avoid back injuries.
Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is a condition that causes numbness and aching in the hands and arms. It becomes worse with participation in some common sports or jobs. Learn how CTS develops and what you can do to prevent it.
The vertebrae in your spine are cushioned by soft disks. When one of the disks in your neck—the cervical area of your spine—ruptures, the result can be neck pain. Watch this video to find out the possible causes and recommended treatment.
Cluster headaches are uncommon, but when they occur, they bring on severe head pain. The pain is constant, focused in and around one eye. This video discusses the possible causes of this type of headache and recommended treatments.
A concussion is an injury to the brain caused by a blow to the head, or by striking the head on another object. It may result in loss of consciousness or confusion, but the effects usually resolve in a few hours or days. This video explains what happens during a concussion, how it should be treated, and what preventive steps to take.
Your lumbar spine, or low back, is made of five vertebrae separated by cushioning disks of cartilage. Degenerative conditions or trauma can damage a disk, allowing the material inside to bulge into the spinal canal. This video discusses the effects of this bulging or herniated disk.
Migraine headaches are intense, recurrent headaches that may occur at any age but usually begin between the ages of 10 and 30 years. The precise cause is unknown, but it is hereditary in up to 80 percent of cases. This video gives additional details about migraines, including their symptoms and effective treatments.
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a slowly progressive disease of the central nervous system. MS damages the protective covering of nerve fibers, which leads to multiple physical problems. In this video, you'll learn about possible causes, the range of symptoms, and treatments available.
Myasthenia gravis is a disease of the central nervous system characterized by sporadic muscular fatigue and weakness. It occurs chiefly in the muscles of swallowing and chewing, as well as the muscles of the eyes, face, and neck. This video explores possible causes of this disease, as well as available treatments.
Scoliosis is a condition that causes the spine to curve sideways. It can develop during childhood or adolescence and can range from mild to severe. This video explains how scoliosis occurs and what treatments are available.
A seizure is caused by abnormal signals in the brain. One type of generalized seizure is the grand mal seizure. A person have this type of seizure may lose consciousness, as well as bowel and bladder control. This video explains what occurs during a grand mal seizure and what treatments are available.
A seizure is caused by abnormal signals in the brain. One type of generalized seizure is the petit mal or absence seizure. A person having this type of seizure has only brief breaks of consciousness that may not be noticed. This video explains how a petit mal seizure occurs and what treatments are available.
A spinal tap, also called lumbar puncture, is used to take a sample of the fluid from the spinal column to look for infection or bleeding. The most common reasons people need this procedure include severe headache, fever with a stiff neck or vomiting, or confusion. Watch this video to learn what happens during this procedure.
Spinal stenosis is a condition in which the spinal canal narrows and pinches the nerves, resulting in back and leg pain. Spinal stenosis often occurs in older adults, although younger people who are born with a small spinal canal may also develop symptoms. This video explains the condition and what treatments are recommended.
Tension headaches are usually dull, aching, or throbbing headaches often associated with sensations of fullness, tightness, or pressure. The pain involves both sides of the head and neck. In this video, you'll find out more about symptoms, possible causes, and recommended treatments.
A transient ischemic attack (TIA), also called a ministroke stroke, causes symptoms similar to those of a stroke. The difference is that TIAs don’t cause permanent brain damage. This video explains what happens during a TIA, what you should do if you have symptoms, and what treatment is available.
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