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HCV spreads through blood. Infection can happen when blood containing the virus enters a healthy person’s body. In many cases, how a person got infected is not known for sure. HCV can be passed in the following ways:
From mother to baby during birth.
Through contact with infected blood, such as by touching an open cut or scrape. HCV can also spread if you use an item that has even a tiny amount of an infected person’s blood on it. This includes personal care items (such as toothbrushes, nail clippers, or pierced earrings), and tattoo or drug needles.
Through infected blood products during a transfusion. Careful screening of donated blood makes this type of transmission very rare in the United States.
During dialysis (a treatment for kidney failure).
Through unprotected sex with an infected person.
HCV almost never causes symptoms. This means someone can have it for years without knowing. If any symptoms do occur, they will likely be mild. They can include:
Pain in the upper right abdomen (where the liver is)
Tiredness and weakness
Sore muscles and joints
Upset stomach, vomiting, or diarrhea
Blood in vomit or stool
Jaundice (yellowing of the skin and whites of the eyes, dark urine, or light-colored stools)
The healthcare provider asks questions to determine how the child may have been exposed to hepatitis C. The healthcare provider also does an exam. The child’s blood is tested for HCV. Other tests may be done to see how healthy the liver is and to look for signs of liver damage.
Medicine is available to treat chronic HCV infection. The new medicines are very effective, are all oral, and have few side effects. But medicine has risks. If it’s an option for your child, the healthcare provider can discuss the pros and cons of medicine with you.
Ask your child’s healthcare provider for a list of medicines the child should not take. Many prescription and over-the-counter medications stress the liver. These should be avoided. Tell any healthcare provider who prescribes medicine for your child that your child has hepatitis.
Be aware that some herbs and supplements can strain the liver. Talk with your child’s healthcare provider before giving the child anything you buy over the counter.
Make sure your child eats healthy foods. A diet low in fat, high in fiber, and full of fresh fruits and vegetables can help keep your child healthy.
Teach your child to not drink alcohol. Alcohol can cause severe liver damage in people with hepatitis. If you teach your child to avoid alcohol at a young age, he or she may be more likely to drink less or abstain as an adult.
Have your child vaccinated against hepatitis A and B. These are two other forms of hepatitis that could cause more damage to the liver. Other people in your household should also have hepatitis A and B vaccinations. There is currently no vaccine for hepatitis C.
Teach your child how to prevent the spread of hepatitis C to others. Take precautions to avoid exposing yourself to your child’s hepatitis C.
A child with chronic HCV infection should visit the healthcare provider regularly. This way, the healthcare provider can watch for liver damage. Tests will be done to monitor the health of your child’s liver. Hepatitis C causes damage over many years. A child with hepatitis C may develop cirrhosis (scarring in the liver) as an adult. This can lead to problems, and possibly the need for a liver transplant. This is why treatment should be discussed with your healthcare provider.
Contact the healthcare provider if your child:
Has signs of dehydration: decreased urination; very dark urine; dry mouth; refusal to drink fluids; no tears when crying
Is extremely irritable or drowsy
Has swelling in the hands, arms, feet, ankles, abdomen, or face
Bleeds from the nose, mouth, or rectum, or has bloody stools
Bruises more easily than normal
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