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Ratio of CK-MB to total CK, cardiac index
This test measures the amount of creatine kinase (CK), an enzyme, in your blood. It also measures a certain isoenzyme of CK called CK-MB. This is found mostly in the heart.
Your body makes three forms of CK, including CK-MB. CK is found in the heart, muscles, and other organs including the small intestine, brain, and uterus. If you have a heart attack, injured heart muscle cells release CK-MB into your blood.
Because many tissues contain CK, high levels of CK can be a sign of a variety of problems. Higher CK-MB may point more specifically to heart damage.
Each year millions of Americans visit the emergency room with chest pain, but only a fraction of those people are actually having a heart attack or another serious, sudden heart problem. This test helps your healthcare provider figure out whether you're having a heart attack.
Measuring the ratio of CK-MB to total CK can provide information about the cause of your symptoms.
You may need this test if your healthcare provider suspects you are having a heart attack. Symptoms of a heart attack often include:
Pain or discomfort in the chest, such as a squeezing sensation or feeling of fullness
Pain in the neck, back, left arm, or jaw
Shortness of breath
Lightheadedness or dizziness
Nausea or vomiting
Your healthcare provider may also order a test to measure cardiac troponin, or CTn. This test is more commonly used than CK-MB because it more specifically shows heart damage. The cardiac troponin level is the considered the best way to detect heart attack because it is more sensitive and more specific than CK-MB markers.
Your provider may also order an electrocardiogram, or ECG, to measure electrical activity in your heart and help diagnose a heart attack.
Test results may vary depending on your age, gender, health history, the method used for the test, and other things. Your test results may not mean you have a problem. Ask your healthcare provider what your test results mean for you.
Levels of CK-MB do not rise in your blood within the first 4 to 6 hours after a heart attack. You may need to have repeated tests to see if you've had a heart attack.
If you've had a heart attack, both CK-MB and the ratio of CK-MB to total CK will rise. The higher the ratio of CK-MB to CK, the more likely it is that you have a heart problem.
Higher levels of CK-MB may also be caused by muscle damage elsewhere in your body, by diseases that affect your muscles, and by trauma to your chest.
This test may not be helpful if you have both heart and other muscle damage at the same time.
The test is done with a blood sample. A needle is used to draw blood from a vein in your arm or hand.
Having a blood test with a needle carries some risks. These include bleeding, infection, bruising, and feeling lightheaded. When the needle pricks your arm or hand, you may feel a slight sting or pain. Afterward, the site may be sore.
Timing is important. If you have the test too soon after a heart attack, your results may not be accurate.
Strenuous exercise and cocaine use can also affect your results.
You don't need to prepare for this test. Be sure your healthcare provider knows about all medicines, herbs, vitamins, and supplements you are taking. This includes medicines that don't need a prescription and any illicit drugs you may use.
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