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Pain, discomfort or raw feeling of the throat, especially when swallowing
Sore throat is one of the most common reasons patients go to the doctor's office.
The medical term for a throat infection is pharyngitis or tonsillo-pharyngitis.
Causes of Sore Throat
Colds: Most sore throats are from a cold or other viral infection. The presence of a cough, hoarseness or nasal symptoms points to a cold or viral infection as the cause of the sore throat.
Strep Throat: In adults, approximately 10-20% of sore throats are caused by the streptococcus (strep) bacteria. Streptococcal pharyngitis is the only commonly occurring bacteria for which antibiotic therapy is definitely indicated.
Mono: Infectious mononucleosis is primarily seen in young adults, causing 5-10% of the sore throats in that population. It should be suspected in young adults with fever, sore throat, swollen lymph nodes, and a negative strep throat culture. A blood test called a "monospot" can help make the diagnosis. There is no antibiotic treatment.
Other common causes include dry air, smoking, post-nasal drip and yelling. Sexually transmitted diseases (e.g., gonorrhea) can also cause pharyngitis.
Sore throat occurs with a COLD
Sore throat is mild and COUGH is the main symptom
Severe difficulty breathing (e.g., struggling for each breath, unable to speak)
You feel weak or very sick
Difficulty breathing and is not from a blocked or stuffy nose
Fever of 103° F (39.4° C) or higher
Signs of dehydration (e.g., no urine in more than 12 hours, very dry mouth, very lightheaded, etc.)
New drooling (can't swallow fluids) or having great difficulty swallowing
Unable to open mouth completely
You think you need to be seen
Sore throat pain is severe
Pus on the tonsils (back of throat) along with fever
Widespread rash (e.g., trunk and abdomen)
Earache or sinus pain/pressure
Fever present for more than 3 days
Exposure in the past 2 weeks to someone who had Strep Throat
You have a history of having rheumatic fever
You have diabetes mellitus or a weakened immune system (e.g., HIV positive, cancer chemotherapy, chronic steroid treatment, splenectomy)
You have other questions or concerns
Sore throat is the only symptom and lasts longer than 2 days
Sore throat is mild and lasts longer than 4 days
Mild sore throat and you don't think you need to be seen
For Relief of Sore Throat Pain:
Sip warm chicken broth or apple juice.
Suck on hard candy or a throat lozenge (over-the-counter).
Gargle warm salt water three times daily (1 teaspoon of salt in a 8 oz of warm water).
Avoid cigarette smoke.
For pain relief, take acetaminophen, ibuprofen, or naproxen.
Acetaminophen (e.g., Tylenol):
Take 650 mg by mouth every 4-6 hours. Each Regular Strength Tylenol pill has 325 mg of acetaminophen.
Another choice is to take 1,000 mg every 8 hours. Each Extra Strength Tylenol pill has 500 mg of acetaminophen.
The most you should take each day is 3,000 mg.
Ibuprofen (e.g., Motrin, Advil):
Take 400 mg by mouth every 6 hours.
Another choice is to take 600 mg by mouth every 8 hours.
Use the lowest amount that makes your pain feel better.
Naproxen (e.g., Aleve):
Take 250-500 mg by mouth every 12 hours.
Acetaminophen is thought to be safer than ibuprofen or naproxen in people over 65 years old. Acetaminophen is in many OTC and prescription medicines. It might be in more than one medicine that you are taking. You need to be careful and not take an overdose. An acetaminophen overdose can hurt the liver.
Caution: Do not take acetaminophen if you have liver disease.
Caution: Do not take ibuprofen or naproxen if you have stomach problems, kidney disease, are pregnant, or have been told by your doctor to avoid this type of medicine. Do not take ibuprofen or naproxen for more than 7 days without consulting your doctor.
Before taking any medicine, read all the instructions on the package
For fevers above 101° F (38.3° C) take acetaminophen or ibuprofen.
The goal of fever therapy is to bring the fever down to a comfortable level. Remember that fever medicine usually lowers fever 2 degrees F (1 - 1 1/2 degrees C).
Acetaminophen is thought to be safer than ibuprofen in people over 65 years old. Acetaminophen is in many OTC and prescription medicines. It might be in more than one medicine that you are taking. You need to be careful and not take an overdose. An acetaminophen overdose can hurt the liver.
CAUTION: Do not take acetaminophen if you have liver disease.
CAUTION: Do not take ibuprofen if you have stomach problems, kidney disease, are pregnant, or have been told by your doctor to avoid this type of anti-inflammatory drug. Do not take ibuprofen for more than 7 days without consulting your doctor.
Soft Diet: Cold drinks and milk shakes are especially good (Reason: swollen tonsils can make some foods hard to swallow).
Liquids: Adequate liquid intake is important to prevent dehydration. Drink 6-8 glasses of water per day.
Contagiousness: You can return to work or school after the fever is gone and you feel well enough to participate in normal activities. If your doctor determines that you have Strep throat, then you will need to take an antibiotic for 24 hours before you can return.
Expected Course: Sore throats with viral illnesses usually last 3 or 4 days.
Call Your Doctor If:
Sore throat is the main symptom and it lasts longer than 24 hours
Sore throat is mild but lasts longer than 4 days
Fever lasts longer than 3 days
You become worse
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