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Pulling Ahead of Headaches

First, you burned breakfast. Then, you were late for work. And on your way home, the car had a flat tire, making you miss your daughter's softball game.

Now you've got this throbbing headache that has gone from a minor annoyance to a major jackhammer pounding away in your skull.

And this jackhammer crew keeps busy: An estimated 45 million Americans suffer from chronic headaches, according to the National Institute of Neurological Disorders (NINDS) and Stroke and the American College of Physicians. In fact, for half that number, that pounding pain will be severe and possibly disabling.

For most of us, though, relief is as close as the medicine cabinet. Most headaches are harmless and can be treated with over-the-counter (OTC) painkillers—alone or together with rest, ice packs, or relaxation techniques.

Just what is a headache?

Medicine does not understand the exact process by which most common headaches are caused. These are 2 factors that are thought to play a role in some headaches:

  • An inflammation or muscle spasm in the scalp, in the membranes that cover the brain, or in the muscles of the face and jaw

  • A temporary distortion of the blood vessels that supply the brain; they tighten, then relax and expand. The enlarged blood vessels press against nerves, causing pain. A lack of serotonin, a chemical in the brain, can cause the vessels to tighten.

In general, headaches fall into 3 classes—tension, migraine, and cluster.

Tension headaches

The most common type of headache is the tension type. Some people describe them as a band of pressure or tightness around the head, at the back of the neck, or at the base of the skull. Some can last weeks, months, or even years.

A lot of stress factors, anxiety, and depression all add to headaches. The first step in controlling constant headache pain is pinpointing the nature of its causes and symptoms.

Migraine headaches

Unlike tension headaches, you can blame migraines on those temporary changes in the blood vessels serving the brain and scalp. Migraines are 3 times more common in women than in men.

While some people call any severe headache a migraine, the real thing is usually much more intense. It is throbbing pain accompanied by nausea and even vomiting. Migraines can also bring visual changes and make you more sensitive to light, sounds, and smells.

Migraines affect somewhere between 25 million and 29.5 million Americans. People often inherit this condition. Research has also shown ties to diet, stress, changes in sleep-awake cycles, menstruation and hormonal changes in women, and environmental changes.

Cluster headaches

Cluster headaches torment about a million Americans, mostly men and mostly at night. Like migraines, cluster headaches follow changes in the brain's blood flow. Unlike migraines, they last less than an hour and happen in predictable "clusters," in periods of 3 to 8 weeks. They can strike several times a day.

Cluster headaches produce extremely severe pain, weakening victims even more than migraines. But cluster headaches can enter long periods of remission.

The causes

Healthcare providers aren't sure what causes migraines or cluster headaches, but they've identified foods and food additives that can cause a headache.

Then there's a class of chemicals called nitrites. These are used to preserve bacon, sausage, canned ham, smoked fish, and other meats. Nitrites can affect the body much the same way as low levels of serotonin-blood vessels in the brain dilate, sometimes producing a headache.

And certain foods that contain tyramine, like hard cheeses, peas, navy and lima beans, fresh bread, yogurt, alcoholic beverages, and chocolate, might set off headaches, especially in people who get migraines.

Red flags

If you or someone you're with has the following "red flag" symptoms, it's time to seek urgent medical attention: 

  • Headaches 3 or more times per week

  • Sudden or very severe head pain, especially if you were previously pain free

  • A headache you'd call the worst you've ever had

  • A headache after a head or neck injury

  • A headache accompanied by fever, nausea, shortness of breath, or vomiting, or unexpected symptoms of eyes, ears, nose, or throat, or a stiff neck

  • If you experience "neurological manifestations," like flashing light, blurred vision, slurred speech, and numbness, weakness or less feeling in a limb

  • If the headaches are triggered by effort, like exercising, sneezing, or having a bowel movement  

Treating your headache

OTC medicines, like aspirin, acetaminophen, and ibuprofen, are the first line of defense for treating the common headache. Some other methods:

  • Place an ice pack on the forehead, eyes, temples, or nape of the neck.

  • Take a warm bath or shower to help relieve tension.

  • Rest in a quiet, darkened room.

  • Use simple relaxation techniques like breathing deeply, relaxing your muscles and using visual images.

  • Try progressive relaxation. Tense your toes slowly as you breathe in, then relax your toes as you let go of the tension and exhale. Work your way up the body, tensing and relaxing other muscles.

  • Exercise for 30 minutes at least 3 to 4 times a week. Any aerobic exercise slows your heart rate and releases painkilling chemicals in the brain.

  • Avoid foods associated with the onset of your headaches.

  • Limit caffeine intake.

  • Limit nicotine intake.

  • Get plenty of sleep.

  • Don't skip meals.

  • Have your eyes checked.

The NINDS recommends preventive treatment if you experience 3 or more headaches every month. Treatment is also recommended if your headaches increasingly do not respond to OTC medicines.


Online Medical Reviewer: Jasmin, Luc, MD
Last Review Date: 9/3/2015
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